The electronic sensor used to detect the movement of human being within a certain range of the sensor is called as PIR sensor or passive infrared sensor (approximately have an average value of 10m, but 5m to 12m is the actual detection range of the sensor). Fundamentally, pyroelectric sensors that detect the levels of infrared radiation are used to make PIR sensors. There are different types of sensor and here let us discuss about PIR sensor with dome shaped Fresnel lens.
The pin configuration of the PIR sensor is shown in the figure. PIR sensor consists of three pins, ground, signal, and power at the side or bottom. Generally, the PIR sensor power is up to 5V, but, the large size PIR modules operate a relay instead of direct output. It is very simple and easy to interface the sensor with a microcontroller. The output of the PIR is (usually digital output) either low or high. PIR Sensor Circuit
The PIR sensor circuit consists of three pins, power supply pin, output signal pin, and ground pin. The PIR sensor circuit is having ceramic substrate and filter window as shown in the figure and also having dome like structure called as Fresnel lens. PIR Sensor Working
If once the sensor gets warmed up, then the output remains low until it detects motion. If once it detects the motion, then the output goes high for a couple of seconds and then returns to a normal state or low. This sensor requires settling time, which is characteristically in the range of 10 to 60 seconds.
Practical Applications of PIR Sensor
PIR sensors have numerous applications in different fields such as automatic switching operation of outdoor lights, lift lobby, common staircases, automatic switching operation of garden lights based on the presence of a human being, for covered parking area, automatic door operating system in shopping malls, and so on